Depending on the climatic conditions and geographic location, national and cultural traditions, baths differ in each country planning decisions, structural schemas, bathing rituals, ways furnaces, etc.. But in General, baths can be divided into three basic types:
- dry-air-temperature 60 before 120 degrees with humidity of 5 before 25%. A typical example is the Finnish bath
- raw (with wet steam) — temperature 50-70 degrees with humidity 80-100%. An example is the Russian and Turkish baths
- water-Japanese baths
Russian bath (Photo): hot and humid
- 1 Russian bath (Photo): hot and humid
- 2 Finnish bath (Photo): hot and dry
- 3 Japanese bath Ofuro: complete relaxation
- 4 Bath Hamam: Oriental pairs
- 5 Projects of baths (Photo): the basic requirements
- 6 Bath: charm of naturalness
- 7 Infrared sauna: Compact and affordable
- 8 Bathhouse on wheels: mobility without losing steam quality
- 9 Frame bath: profitability and efficiency
- 10 Draft baths with pool: that should be taken into account
There are two types of Russian bath-with Stoker "white" and "black". In the bathhouse-black (It is also called the smoky) hearth (oven) has no chimney, in it, the smoke goes through either door, or through the special hole in the ceiling. Today such baths are built very rarely, When this, Despite its primitive, they have their charm-the smell of tar and smoke gives it a special charm.
In the bath "white" in the steam room not open source fire-oven-stove closed, Therefore, the oxygen in a room not burned out. Wood burning stove can heat the air to 80 degrees under the ceiling and to 45 -Paul. While good oven does not pass into the room of smoke and carbon monoxide. Water is heated in a boiler, vmontirovannom in oven. To achieve the required concentration couple, the red-hot stones around the stove pour water or herbal infusions, decoctions, kvass and even beer, so couples in such bath-very wet. Small baths steam room and pomyvočnuû usually combine.
An indispensable attribute of the "correct" steam-brooms for bath. Besides the classical-Birch, brooms may be bogus, Oak, Cupressaceae, čeremuhovye, FIR, Juniper and urticaceae.
Finnish bath (Photo): hot and dry
The main difference from Russian sauna-dry steam, humidity in the sauna room rarely exceeds 10-15%, but the air is much hotter, It can be heated up to 100-110° c, and some amateurs extreme evaporation reaches and 140° c. Walls-wooden, no different from Russian traditions. The main requirement is a good thermal insulation, minimizing an heat loss, especially-ceiling and floor (make it a double).
Distinct and kiln-in Finnish saunas on stones do not pour water. Steam heating is carried out by two methods-with or without heater heaters. In the first case, a pile of stones, which stack on top of the electric heater or chimney stoves, accumulate heat during firing, and then passes it on to the air. Heated to 400° with stones are able to maintain for a long time in the steamy heat. But much more frequent use of the device, directly heating the air, for example, gas furnaces, pipes, on which Miss hot couples, or electric heaters.
Traditional Finnish sauna on smaller Russian, projects of Finnish saunas provide just two rooms-actually a steam room and a multifunctional room-dressing room/lounge, combined with shower. Ceiling height in sauna — 200 — 230 see, It therefore set parallel to the shelves in two tiers for lying and sitting.
Japanese bath Ofuro: complete relaxation
Preference is given to a Japanese bath in hot water, not hot air or a couple. Traditional Japanese public baths-Sento is simply a pool of warm (40− 50° c) water, where people come not to cleanse the body, and for relaxation and socialising with friends.
Ofuro tub recalls for the Europeans is a font (may be rectangular, a round or oval shape), made of Cedar, Oak or larch. (Fig. 1)
Specially loaded into water oven allows you to maintain the temperature in the pools within 45-50° c. In such a bath sink not completely-the water level must not reach the heart, but the procedure itself should not exceed 10-15 min. During this time, reveal the pores of the skin, the body of waste products and toxins are displayed, the metabolism is stimulated, improves the function of kidneys, cardiovascular system, joints. Athletes shall conduct the procedure in after competitions Ofuro, to relieve tension and relax muscles.
To increase the effect of water add essential oils, rose petals, Salt, herbal extracts. After the Ofuro Japanese lay down on the couch and just have a rest not less than one hour-body relaxes, the nerves are soothed, and thoughts are ordered.
In the flat version of the font tool electric oven, mounted on the outside of the, and water is carried out using two pipelines pumping water from one of the font in the electric furnace, and through another warmed water is returned back, While prescribed temperature sensor allows to maintain the exact desired temperature.
Bath Hamam: Oriental pairs
This is a very moist steam bath, where the humidity can reach 100% — sometimes due to a couple of very limited visibility. But thanks to low (maximum 50° c) temperature, This humidity is moved fairly easy. The peculiarity of the Turkish bath-plenty of rooms with different temperatures. In the locker room is still not hot — 28-30° C, but already warm enough, the body begins to warm up. In the main hall, where are the heated marble lounge chairs — 40-50° C, Here hold wellness and massage. In the classical Turkish bath from the main hall departed rooms-sauna with different temperatures (up to 70° c), but now usually limited to one steam room (rice. 2).
In the authentic Turkish bath all surfaces, especially sunbeds, made of marble, under which the laid pipe system, filled with hot water. Thanks to this stone warms up and becomes a source of soft, a pleasant heat. Thanks to this room warms up evenly, cold only under the ceiling. To cold condensation dripping on people, ceiling Hamam is executed in the form of domes, therefore droplets of freely flowing on the floor.
Because burning heat in the Hammam is not, the steam produced from the cauldron of boiling water-in the classical Turkish baths it installed under the floor and couples raised up. Modern baths instead of boilers use steam generators. Warm floors, walls, massage table and seats carry out method, the same "warm floor", laying inside heating elements-water heating or electrical.
Projects of baths (Photo): the basic requirements
The choice to build a separate room for a bath or find a place for the sauna inside the House depends on the size of the lot, sewer type, Summing up the capabilities of communications and, main, financial capacity and willingness of the future owner. In addition, on the choice of locations for building depends on a few factors:
- requirements of building codes (sauna with a wood-burning stove should not be located closer 6 m from residential house, Plus you have to consider the minimum distances to boundaries, neighbors, "red line", etc.) and health standards
- availability of water-hole, centralized sewage, natural source
- availability of sanitation-the ability to use existing sewer or the need to build a separate sump (cesspit)
Council! To reduce the length of pipelines, You can design bath, adjacent to the House.
Small-sized baths project involves three main functional premises:
- dressing-room (locker room) -at the same time she and as recreation room. In addition, It acts as a Tambura, excluding ingress of cold air into the steam room
- car wash-for spending directly hygiene procedures
- steam room-organized taking into account the features of the selected type baths: Russian, Finnish, infrared, etc..
Typical bath is shown in Figure 3.
When designing the bathhouses are still a few points should be taken into account:
- bath-warm water temperature for this necessary to reduce heat loss, attributable to the outside. Warming bath, on the one hand, reduce time on her heating, and on the other hand, reduces the amount of energy used (firewood, electricity, gas, etc.). In addition, stove power is directly related to its size, and power reduction will free up additional space
- heat circulation-provide heat flow circulation, that should ensure even heating of premises, correct vaporization and sufficient ventilation
Council! Based on the characteristics of heat flow movement (warm air up, cold-along the walls down), canopies do not make solid and not mount them flush to walls. In this case the area near wall will warm up weakly, a canopy will be an obstacle to the distribution of hot air.
Bath: charm of naturalness
To date, the Russian bath furnace can be installed in the steam room of a different type: gas, electric or solid fuel. But bath with wood-burning stove remains out of competition, It is not only in the tradition of, Although not unimportant. Bath has a number of advantages:
- autonomy-no need to pull the gas line. It is expensive, plus — requires multiple approvals, as boiler installation, as well as regular checks. And since the bath often erect before the readiness of the main house and supply communications, wood burning stove produces non-alternative
- Bearing in mind the special humidity, installation of electric furnace repeatedly increases the likelihood of electric shock
- availability and relative cheapness of wood
Oh and of course, Nothing beats the crackling logs in the stove, that adds a special atmosphere of bath naturalness and authenticity.
Infrared sauna: Compact and affordable
Body heat is obtained by means of infrared radiation, infrared emitters generated waves, built-in Panel. This is the compact version of the sauna (the steam room), It can be installed even in the conditions of city apartments, It does not require approvals with the Fire Department, BTI or neighbours. Extremely compact dimensions saunas in conditions of standard urban apartment allow you to mount it, for example, on the Loggia. From the utilities need only bring electricity.
Note and other advantages:
- availability-thanks to the low (inside the sauna-45-55 c, rather than 110 (c), as in regular) temperature and lack of steam, This sauna is transferred more easily, Therefore, many available, from babies to seniors
- Save time-to heat such a sauna you will need to 15-20 minutes, While there's nothing to hack and to heat the furnace
- all space uniformly warms up the sauna
- easy Assembly-upon delivery of the sauna is a prefabricated-panel set, for installation will require minimum skills, drill and screwdriver, Assembly operation takes about 2 hours
- therapeutic and cosmetic effect-under influence of infra-red radiation skin pores, to the cells increases blood flow and nutrients with it, metabolism is enhanced, together with then toxins, dirt, slag and dead cells. The skin becomes younger, smooth, elastic.
Bathhouse on wheels: mobility without losing steam quality
Great for summer camp, camping or seasonal campsites, for example, Geologists or builders. In addition, at the end of the season it is easy to transport in a special place to store, not leaving without protection and not worrying for her safety in winter without supervision. A definite advantage — the lack of dirt, construction debris (Which one, By the way, still no need to remove, that is especially important for conservation areas) and other inconveniences, that inevitably accompany construction.
To get mobile baths can be used truck (Kung), trailer for the car, or use a ready-made frame, PIN on the platform. For heating can be used as a traditional wood-burning stove, and electric. The last option is suitable for small mobile baths, but it is necessary to consider the presence of electrical networks and include bath generator. To improve the security of, save space and facilities the Firebox wood burning stove often assemble outside.
Bath, obtained by alteration of Kunga (The Urals or ZIL-131), able to accommodate up to 6 man. At competent design this bath has all the necessary elements: steam room, shower, anteroom with cloakroom (rice. 4). In addition, This bath can be carried by the water and firewood, mounted under the kitchen trailer-this guarantees its absolute autonomy.
To save space, install folding benches, tables and folding shelves. Rules of internal furnish of baths on wheels do not differ from conventional saunas (baths), true, Special attention will require fixing a furnace and furniture-they must be securely locked when driving.
Frame bath: profitability and efficiency
Log houses projects is, Of course, Classic, but its financial costs available not all. By replacing expensive wood (brick or stone) more cheap teploizoljatsionnye materials and application techniques frame construction You can get a bath, which repeats all of the property and dignity of bath houses, but it will cost you much cheaper. (rice. 5)
Inside it is fully wooden, its walls "breathe", It effectively keeps the heat, creating special "bath" microclimate. In addition, because modern insulating material thermal conductivity much less, This kind of bath much easier to warm up (natopit′) -both time, and the amount of fuel. At the same time, it retains the heat, It is easy to maintain desired temperature.
Note a number of advantages:
- speed of construction-all works, from the pouring of the Foundation to interior decoration, You can perform in a single season. The lack of pronounced shrinkage allows finishing even before full completion
- light weight design allows to save considerably on concrete when laying the foundations
- a variety of finishes-can be finished framed bath any material: siding, tiles, Board, plaster or blokhauzom (so the bath will not externally distinguishable from the chopped)
Draft baths with pool: that should be taken into account
Projects of Russian baths, including pool-the most complex to implement, After all, have to take into account many aspects:
- location of swimming pools-exterior (outdoor, on the street) and inside the baths (At home). From this view will depend on the basin and its shape, the underlying type of Foundation, Waterproofing of a ceiling and walls, type of equipment, laying engineering networks. For the outdoor pool may require installation of heating. For baths at dacha (seasonal housing) perfect outdoor swimming pool, This will help reduce costs
- assign pool-it may just be a small font, where good dip after the bath or it can be even used for navigation
- sewerage-her presence and type of, because the pool is a large volume of water, that will have to be periodically emptied. This can be a centralized sewerage system, or need to equip a cesspool, create a separate bath drainage
- design type of swimming pools above ground, poluzaglublennyj or recessed, the choice depends on the characteristics of groundwater and soil strength
- installing additional systems-hydro massage, backlight, waterfalls etc..